Minggu, 19 Mei 2013

MATERIAL TOEFL AND GRAMMAR STRUCTURE


TOEFL test materials consisted of four sessions, which typically must be completed in a total time of 3 hours. Each session has its own time limit, so it takes the ability to solve the "true and fast". Each session include:
1.       listening Comprehension
This section consists of 50 questions, you are required to answer the question that is played (this matter is not recorded in the books about). In this case the matter related to the three types of conversations: Conversations short, long conversations, and a long story.
·         Part A : Short Dialogue
In this section, there will be a short conversation between two people. After the conversation, the question relating to the conversation will be provided. Both the conversation and the question will not be repeated. Short Dialogue consists of several skill / ability, namely:
Skill 1: RESTATEMENT (Pernyataan Kembali)
 Skill 2: NEGATIVES (Pernyataan Negatif)
 Skill 3: SUGGESTIONS (Saran)
 Skill 4: PASSIVE
 Skill 5: WHO and WHERE (Apa dan Dimana)
 Skill 6: AGREEMENT (Persetujuan)
·         Part B : Long Conversation
In this section, there will be the topic of casual conversation between a student with a duration of about 60-90 seconds. After a long conversation finishes will be followed by a number of multiple choice questions which all refer to the length of the conversation.
·         Part C : Talks
In this section, there will be some talks with a duration of about 60-90 seconds of the life of the school or college, each followed by multiple choice questions.

2.       Grammar Structure and Written Expression
Type of question is a structure with multiple-choice questions which required knowledge of grammar or correct grammar.
3.       Reading Comprehension
You will face questions about the form of the story, where there will be questions related to the story. The story can be used for one or more questions. Berbada with Listening Comprehension, Reading Comprehension questions at the session for questions and a book should be read carefully.
4.       Writing
You
will be given a theme, and the theme is developed into writing in the English language. There are usually a limited number of characters minimum that should be on your writing.


TOEFL GRAMMAR STUCTURE
A.    Basic Sentences Stucture
In general, there was no significant difference between the structure of English sentences with Indonesian, where a sentence is built upon four main components, namely.
Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Complement (C) + Modifier (M)
Example :
We studied grammar last week
We + studied + grammar + last week
S + V + C + M
1.      SUBJECT
·         is the agent of sentence in the active voice
·         is thing/person that performs or responsible for the action of a sentence 
·         normally precedes the verb
example :
·         I explain how to study English
·         She listens to my explanation
·         They didn’t understand that language
The subject can be seen from the question who or what is doing the action of a sentence.
2.      VERB
Verb is the action of a sentence. Verb phrase: auxilaries combination with the main verb.
Example :
·         I am learning English (am = auxilary, learning = main verb)
·         My brother is very clever
·         She has gone home (has = auxilary, gone = main verb)
·         I have been waiting here (have been = auxilary, waiting = main verb)
3.      COMPLEMENT
·         Usually a noun or noun phrase
·         usually found after the verb in the active sentence
·         complement to answer the question what or whom

example :
·         Sarijon bought a cake yesterday
o    What did Sarijon buy yesterday?  –> a cake.
·         He saw Tony at the movie
o    Whom did he see at the movie? –> Tony
·         I explain pharmacology to my students
o    What do I explain to my students? –> pharmacology
4.      MODIFIER

·         Modifier describes the time, place, or manner of an action or actions
·         The most common form of the modifier is a propositional phrase (group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun.
 Preposition = on, out, under, behind, etc ...
·          Modifier answer the questions when, where, or how

Example :
·         John bought a book at a book fair
o    Where did John buy a book? –> at a book fair
·         She is driving very fast
o    How is she driving? –> very fast
·         I posted my application yesterday
o    When do I post my application? –> yesterday
example problems :
1.      The Eiffel Tower is a landmark in Paris, France
2.      Young deer is fawns
3.      A dream about falling is scary
4.      Those flowers are beautiful
5.      I launched  this blog on july 14th 2009


B.     Parallel Structure
Parallelism means that the words used in a series or group that should have the same form as grammar. When we use words or phrases that are connected by a chain, then it must be the same shape as grammar. Consider the following example:
·         Terry likes swimming and to dive. (False - not parallel)
·          Terry likes swimming and diving. (True - parallel)
·          Terry likes to swim and (to) dive. (True - parallel)
·          I'm taking history, math, and chemical. (False - Chemical not a noun)
·          I'm taking history, math, and chemistry
Example problem :
Identify and correct the mistakes in parallel structure in the following sentences
1.      I swept the yard, weeded the garden and washed the clothes.
2.      James decided to get up early, practice some yoga and eat  healthy foods.
3.      Although I trained hard, practiced every day and listened  to my trainer, I never won a tournament.
4.      I wish he would listen to me, take my advice and stop smoking.
5.      He is an articulate, intelligent and thoughtful  speaker.


C.    Comparative Adjectives
When talking about the two objects, we can compare and see the differences as well similarities between the two objects. Maybe it has the same thing on one side and the difference on the other side. To compare the difference between the two objects we use comparative adjectives. Comparison is only using comparative adjectives to compare between two objects only.
There are two ways to create a comparative adjectives:
1. Adding the suffix-er (short adjectives)
2. Adding more prefix (long adjectives)
Addition of a suffix rule for short adjectives:
·          Generally only added adjective-er, for example: older, smaller, richer, etc.
·         If the ending-e, just add r, for example: later, nicer, etc.
·         If the ending in a consonant-vowel-consonant, the final consonant plus, then plus-er, for example: bigger, hotter, etc.
·         If the ending-y, then y changed to i then added er, for example: happier, Earlier, busier, heavier, etc.
For long adjectives, the rule only adds more words only on adjectives, for example: expensive to be more expensive, more beautiful to be beautiful, and so on. Some adjectives have irregular shapes, such as good - better, well (healthy) - better, bad - worse, far - farther / further, etc.
Adjectives with two syllables can use-er or more: quiet - quieter / more quiet, clever - cleverer / more clever, narrow - narrower / more narrow, simple - Simpler / more simple. Comparative adjectives are not only used to compare two different objects, but can also be used to compare the same object that points to itself, and the object is not to say, as one example sentence above: I want to have a more powerful computer.
Adjectives with two syllables
If the adjective has two or more syllables, we add more before the adjective. example:
·         This book is more expensive than that book.
·         This picture is more beautiful.
However, there are many exceptions to the rule of one / two syllables it.
Some words with 2 syllables have properties similar to words that have 1 syllable. example:
·         This is Easier True
·         This is more easy - not really
·          This is Simpler True
·         This is more simple - not true

And some adjectives can use both comparative form. example:
·         Clever - cleverer - more clever: These are all correct
·         Quiet - quieter - more quiet: These are all correct.
No exceptions can be learned through the rules, the best way to learn is to learn it one by one.
Example problems :
  1. The Nile river is longer than the Amazon.
  2. I’m taller than Yuri but shorter than Miko.
  3. They’re more handsome than us, but we’re smarter than them.
  4. This book bag is more expensive than that bag.
  5. This newspaper is better than that newspaper.


D.    Conditional Clauses
Conditional (sentence presupposition) explains that an activity contrary to other activities. The most common conditional is Real and Unreal Conditonal Conditonal, sometimes called if-clauses. Real Conditional (often also referred to as Conditional Type I) which describes mengandai-if in accordance with the facts.

Unreal Conditional (often also referred to as Conditional Type II) which describes the supposition that no real or imagined. There is also a 3rd Conditional often called the Conditional Type III, is used as a regret that happened in the past and zero conditionals, used to express something that is definitely true.

Note: If the clause "if" is placed at the beginning of a sentence, we must use the "coma". Conversely, if the clause "if" is behind, then there should be no comma
Conditional or modality has 3 forms:
1.         Future Conditional (Conditional Type 1) This assumption states that something might happen in the future or now, if the terms / certain conditions are met.
Type 1 Conditional formula:
+ Subject + If + subject + present simple modals (will, can, may, must) V1 (simple form)
example: If have money I will buy a new car
Simple If + Subject + ... + subject + present simple-present
example: If he has enough time, John usually walks to school.
If + Subject + ... + command simple present form
example: If you go to the post office, please mail this letter for me!
2.         Unreal Present (Conditional Type 2) This assumption states something contrary to what exists or happens now.
+ If + subject + subject + simple past modals (would, could, might) V1 (Simple Form)
example: If I had time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend
(I do not have time so I could not go)
He would tell you about it if he were here
(He would say if he were here, that because she's not here, he did not say Because he is not here he does not tell you about it.)
* For the if-clause in this form only to be "were" is used for all subjects.
if the conditional type 2 can be removed is by using pattern inversion:
Were + subject + Adj / Noun + capital + subject (would, could, might) + V1
example: Were I John I would not forgive you.
(if only I was the john I will not forgive you, in fact I not john so I forgive you / I'm not John so I forgive you).
He could hug me, if he were here. (She may hug me, if he's here). The fact is: he can not hug me, Because, he is not here.
3. Unreal Past (Conditional Type 3)
This assumption states something contrary to what has happened (past).
Type 3 Conditional formula:
+ If + Subject + Past Perfect ... subject modals (would, could, might) have + V3
      Example :
1.  If we had known that you were there, we would have written you a letter.
(if only we knew you were there, we had sent a letter to you;
which means that we do not send the letter because we do not know you're there / I did not know that you were there so I did not write you a letter.
2.  He would tell you about it if he were here.
3.  If he did not speak so quickly intervening, you could understand him.
           Form inversion (without the "IF") for this pattern:
Had + subject + V3 ... subject + modals (would, could, might) + have V3

           inverse sentence above when written into:
          Had we known that you were there, we would have written you a letter.
          without changing the meaning or significance.
Example Problems :
1. If it was not so cloudy, we would plan on having the fair outside
2. If she would have remembered  to advance her clock one hour, she wouldn’t    have been late for work
3.  If I were rich, I would go to Canada to learn English.
4. You should pass this easy exam easily if you have studied hard

E. Noun Clauses
Noun clause is a clause (ie subject and verb) is used as a noun. Noun clause in the sentence is generally used as a subject and an object sentences.
Noun clause can be preceded by:
·         Question word or relative pronoun question either single word or phrase:
 Single question word (ie when, how, what, ect.).
o Question word + determiner / noun / adjective / adverb.
o Question word + infinitive.
·          CONJUNCTION (i.e. Whether and if).
·          That or the fact that.
So the pattern of the noun clause is:

Question word/conjunction/that + subject + verb +  ..…

A.  Noun clauses beginning with Question words
In How to Address Questions already discussed about the use of question words either in making information questions and in making embedded questions. Embedded questions are noun clause. In this section are given additional examples to refresh your memory.

Refresh your memory.
1.      Single question words.
example:
1.      Where she is now is still unknown.
2.      When they arrive is still uncertain.
3.      I know what you did last summer and I still know what you did last summer are two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt. Note: in this sentence, noun clause what you did last summer became the object of I know and I still know, and once combined with: are two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt, a compound subject of the sentence.
Noun clause can be placed at the beginning of the sentence (as subject) or as an object. If you want to change the position of the subject noun clause object sentence into a sentence, it is usually necessary pronoun or a slight modification of the word. The above example becomes:
1.      It is still unknown where she is now.
2.      Do you know when they arrive?
3.      Two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt are I know what you did last summer and I still know what you did last summer. Because the title of movies, noun clause what you did last summer does not need to be rotated position.
NOTE :
a.       Clause question preceded by certain words (ie when, Whenever, where) can also function as an adverbial clause.
example:
1.      I was reading a book when the phone rang.
2.      I went to where I and my ex-girlfriend had been last weekend.
3.      Suddenly I get nausea Whenever I see his face. (nausea = nausea / vomiting willing).
b.      Clause is preceded by the words specific question (ie who, Whom, Whose + noun) can also function as an adjective clause. In this case, the question is actually a relative pronoun. Well, do not be too confused by the term. Important that you understand the pattern / structure of the sentence. But, if you are curious, please read the adjective clauses topic.
example:
1.      I think you Whom Mr. Dodi was looking for. (I guess you (people) who pack Dodi were looking for earlier).
2.      Mr. Dodi, who is a teacher, was looking for you at school.
3.      Rommy, Whose book was stolen last week, just bought another new book yesterday.
So, how to tell if the noun clause, adverbial clause, or adjective clause? The answer is simple. Noun clause can be replaced by the pronoun it, while the adverbial clause and adjective clause no. Noun clause answers the question what and who / Whom; adverbial clause answering questions when, where, how (including how much, how often, ect), and why. Adjective clause (ie in the form of an adjective clause) describes noun, and relative pronounnya (ie who, that, ect.) In Indonesian means "the".
 
2. Question words + ever / soever
Except how, at the end of question words can be added ever or soever Whenever = whensoever, whatever = whatsoever, and so on. Meaning here ever or soever the same, ie only / no, stay combined with a question word in front of him. Meanwhile, how + ever be however (ie adverb or also called a transition word meaning yet / even if it is) is not included in this category.
Example :
1.      We will accept whatever you want us to do. (We will accept / do whatever you want us to do).
2.      Whoever can melt her feeling is a very lucky guy. (melt = melt). Be careful: guy (pronounced gae) = men, while gay (read gei) = fag = fag.
3.      She has agreed to wherever the man would bring her. (He has agreed to take him wherever he goes). Note: in speaking (informal), preposition (in this case to, etc.) Is usually placed at the end of the sentence. She has agreed wherever the man would bring her to.

3. Question nouns + words
      Question words + nouns are often used, among others: what time (time), what day   (what day), what time (time), what kind (what kind), what type (what type), Whose + nouns (ie Whose car, Whose book, ect.), and so on.
Example:
1.      I can not remember what day we will take the exam.
2.      As long as I am faithful, she does not care what type of family I come from. (faithful = loyal).
3.      Do you know what time it is?
4.      I do not know Whose car is parked in front of my house.

4. Question adjectives + words
+ Question words are frequently used adjectives such as: how long (how long / long),   how far (how     much), how old (how old / Age), ect.
Example :
1.      Man! She still looks young. Do you know how old she actually is?
2.      I am lost. Could you tell me how far it is from here to the post office?
3.      What a jerk. He did not even ask how long I had been waiting for him.


5. Question words + determiners.
Determiners + Question words often used is: how many (how many) and how much (how many). Remember: how many followed by plural nouns, whereas how much followed by uncountable nouns.
Example :
1.       Is there any correlation between how good he or she is in English and how many books he or she has?
2.       How much will improve your English skills is determined by how hard you practice.

6. Question words + adverbs
+ Question words are frequently used adverbs are: how Often (how often), how many times (how many times) ect.
Example :
1.      Often no matter how I practice, my English still sucks. (No matter how many times I practice, my english is bad). Suck (informal verb) = bad / not good; suck another meaning: suck.
2.       I do not want my parents to know how many times I have left school early. (leave school early = absent).

7. Question words + infinitives
If the question words immediately followed by infinitives, the invinitives implies shouldatau can / could. Note that the subject after question words omitted.
Example :
1.       She did not know what to do = She did not know what she should do. (He does not know what he should do).
2.      Please tell me how to get the train station from here = Please tell me how I can get the train station from here.
3.      We have not Decided when to go to the beach = We have not Decided when we should go to the beach.
4.      Mary told us where to find her = Marry told us where we could find her.

B. Noun clauses beginning with Whether / if
Whether can be followed by OR / NOT can not; meaning of the sentence is usually the same although the OR / NOT is not mentioned (it depends on the context of the sentence).
Example:
1.      Whether I am not sure she is coming or not = I am not sure Whether or not she is coming = I am not sure Whether she is coming. (I'm not sure whether he will come or not).
2.      We can not decide Whether we should go out or stay home. = We can not decide Whether to go or (to) stay home. Note, infinitives can also be used after Whether.
3.      Whether I am not sure I should take economics or law after I graduate from high school. (I'm not sure if I should take some Economic Law after graduating from high school or later).
4.      If you take economics, I will take economics. On the other hand, if you take law, I will take law too.




C. Noun clauses beginning with that / the fact that
Here, that means that, while the fact that means the fact that. Whereas, that in    adjective clauses mean that.
example:
1.       That she has had a PhD degree at the age of 20 surprises a lot of people = It surprises a lot of people that she has had a PhD degree at the age of 20.
2.      It is the fact that the world is round = the fact that the world is round is well known.
3.      It was obvious that she was very sick = The fact that she was very sick was obvious.
4.      It seems that it is going to rain soon.

Example Problem:
1.      The teacher heard who answered the question.
analysis:
·          The first sentence "The teacher heard" is true because the subject teacher and heard verbnya. The second sentence "Who answered the phoned" is also true because who serves as a subject and answered as verbnya. Who at the same time also serves as connetor.
·          So the above sentence is correct.
2.      I do not understand it went wrong.
Analysis:
·         The first sentence "I do not understand" is correct because I do not understand the subject and verb. The second sentence "it went wrong" is wrong because there is no connector at once subject.
·         correct sentence should be: I do not understand what went wrong.What subject and also serves as a connector, while his went as a verb.
3.      Of the three movies, I can not decide is the best roomates.
Analysis:
·          In the first sentence, I can not decide as Subject and as a verb. In the second sentence, roomates as well as the subject and the connector is a verb.
4.      She did not remember who in her class.
Analysis:
·          In the first sentence, as She did not remember the subject and the verb. Dikalimat second, who as a connector and also subject but no verb.
·          correct sentence should ................. who was in her class.
5.      No one is sure what did it happen in front of the building.
Analysis:
·         The first sentence is correct because No one is subject and is is a verb, but the second sentence is wrong because there was and it did. Did and it seharusnay in delete and verb "happen" became form of yesteryear "happened".
·          So the correct sentence should be: ....... what happened in front of the building.

SUMBER :
 http://www.eslgold.com/grammar/toefl_grammar.html

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